The State Planning Board in 1937 did a study of office space requirements for state departments in Jefferson City. Your specialist in the archaeology of forgotten information uncovered it at the State Archives during research on the next Capitol book and thought it offers context for the discussions about what government should be these eight decades later.
In this era when “big government” has become a charged phrase, this report does at least three things:
- It gives us a history of big government’s early development.
- It explains why the phrase became a necessity.
- It explains why shrinking “big government” is easier to say than it will be to do.
We offer this to you as a prelude to later discussions of Donald F. Kettl’s Escaping Jurassic Government: How to Recover America’s Lost Commitment to Competence, a book that says big government is here to stay but today’s political approaches to it might be only aggravating its shortcomings at a time when enlightened, practical steps should be taken to bring a 19th century system that worked for decades into a workable system in the 21st century. It can be interesting for those of us who are served by government programs but it might be even more useful for those who determine the directions those programs take.
The 1937 study concluded, “A new building is necessary for economy and efficiency in the operation of the State government.” Here’s the history lesson from that report:
When the Capitol building was still under construction, the state government functions were increasing and the demand for office space likewise increased. During the last fifty years or more, great changes have taken place in our social and economic structure. Extensive alterations have occurred in transportation, communication, means of production, trade and commerce, and manners and customs. New standards of civic and social responsibility have arisen and state government in Missouri, as elsewhere, has been affected and has had to keep pace with the influences of the changing world. Today, the state occupies a different place in society than it did fifty or even twenty years ago.
Gradually, the emergency of railroads, the industrial system with its thriving cities, the automobile, corporate financing, public utilities and other products of the period confronted the state with problems of regulation and control which it had never before known. An increase in the material wealth of the population produced a rising standard of living which, in turn, demanded a greater number and better quality of governmental services in the field of education, health, sanitation, and hospitalization of the insane and tubercular. The awakening of a new social responsibility established institutions for the blind, the deaf, and the delinquent minors. The automobile placed the state in the road-building business. Problems arising from industry and urban life demanded that the state inspect mines and manufacturing plants and establish health and sanitary standards. Decade by decade, as our society has grown in size and complexity, new services and functions have been demanded of our state. In short, then, the state has developed into an agency for promotion of the well-being of its citizens.
The report noted the number of permanent administrative government employees in Jefferson City (excluding the legislature and the Supreme Court) had grown from fewer than 100 in 1900 to about 1,400 in 1936 because of that half-century of change in American, and Missouri, society and economy.
The first state agency to reflect that trend in an obvious way was the Highway Department. In 1907, the office of Highway Engineer was created within the State Board of Agriculture (not a department yet). The position became that of State Highway Commissioner in 1913 and just four years after an entirely new department, the State Highway Department, was created—all in response to the rapid growth of the use of automobiles and the need for the roads for them. In 1920, Missourians approved a $60 million dollar bond issue that started the Missouri Centennial Road Program, the state’s first major effort to create a coherent highway system. The report reminds readers that in the space of less than fifteen years, the agency for developing the state road system had grown from one person in the office of another state agency into a “huge department” that finally had to move out of the Capitol and into its own building in 1928.
When the 1937 survey was done, twenty-two departments or parts of departments (not including highways) were housed in the capitol. During legislative sessions they had to find temporary quarters in other buildings in Jefferson City. Two agencies—the Public Service Commission and the now-Department of Agriculture’s laboratory, had moved full-time into the old post office/federal building that was across High Street from the present main post office.
By 1937, government had so outgrown the capitol that office space on the building’s first floor occupied 48% more space than the building’s designed capacity, the study commenting, “This has been accomplished by using as office space the cafeteria, vestibules, vault space, etc. The second floor is seriously overcrowded. In some rooms typists are working in such close quarter that they cannot freely operate their machines. In one case, the fixtures in a toilet were removed and the space converted to offices. The need for office space is so acute that it is planned to make use of other toilets for offices in the near future.
“While the legislature is not in session, certain departments expand their activities into legislative committee rooms and the Senators’ private offices. Each time the legislature convenes, it is the same story. Departments occupying legislative quarters have to move, and each time the legislature adjourns the persons occupying rooms are besieged with requests to let this or that or other departments use the space.” In those days, the legislature met every other year, not annually.
The Federal Works Progress Administration occupied “extensive space” on the legislative floors, including the Senate balcony.
About 2,600 square feet of space in the basement was improvised into offices that had no ventilation and no natural light. Between sessions, ten departments or parts of departments rented space elsewhere in town. During sessions, fifteen departments had to rent space. More than 200 employees worked in a basement that became so polluted by exhaust gases of delivery trucks that many workers developed “sick headaches” that force them to take time away from work.
Missouri was not alone in dealing with the development of big government. The Oklahoma State Planning Board had reported late in 1936 that Missouri was just one of 28 states considering new office buildings.
Big government had arrived—out of necessity. It remains and it is a fact of life. The result of that 1937 study was the Broadway Office Building.
In later entries we’ll review Kettl’s call for realistic thinking about the focus of discussion about the direction of government. In short, he argues without saying it: The goal is less about making government smaller than it is about making American government competent again.